Glossary

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There are 10 names in this directory beginning with the letter C.
Caffeine Anhydrous
What is Caffeine Anhydrous? Caffeine is the energizing compound found in things like coffee, tea, and soft drinks, but Caffeine Anhydrous is a form of caffeine found to be much more effective at improving mental and athletic capabilities. This central nervous system stimulant has many sought after effects such as increased alertness, decreased fatigue, and improved performance under the eroding effects of sleep deprivation and boredom. Caffeine Anhydrous also improve sports and athletic functions. A considerable ergogenic, caffeine improves athletic performance during both long-term endurance trials and short heats. How Does Anhydrous Caffeine Work? Caffeine Anhydrous is a quickly absorbed molecule that efficiently transports throughout the body. Caffeine levels begin to rise as quickly as fifteen minutes after ingestion and don't reach their peak until forty-five minutes later. It has no trouble passing the blood-brain barrier due to its lipid solubility, making it highly effective. Pure Caffeine Anhydrous Powder Benefits Caffeine's role as an athletic boost is due to its wide array of mechanisms. It reduces reliance on glycogen, enhances use of free fatty acids, competes with adenosine, increases secretion of beta endorphins, and boosts thermogenesis, even in chronic coffee drinkers. Caffeine has effects on both the brain and muscles, although its ability to spike athletic performance is most likely a predominantly neural one. Caffeine is also the world's favorite nootropic. Caffeine supplements have shown to provide vastly improved cognitive capacities. Numerous human studies have shown Caffeine Anhydrous maximizes concentration and short term memory. An effective supplement for runners, lifters, thinkers, and those of us who didn't get enough sleep last night, Caffeine Anhydrous is a must have. Caffeine Dosage The recommended caffeine dosage is 50 mg (1 scant .15cc tsp). Caffeine can create mild dependence; use intermittently for best results

Caffeine Citrate
Caffeine Citrate is formed when anhydrous caffeine is treated with citric acid in the presence of sodium citrate. It functions in a similar capacity to standard caffeine; however it is much faster acting. Because it is the preferred method of attenuating apnea in premature infants, it is on the World Health Organization's list of essential medicines. For adults, however, caffeine citrate is primarily used as a stimulant. Citrate Defined Using the citrate form allows the body to absorb caffeine more quickly. Caffeine Citrate Side Effects and Benefits Caffeine citrate benefits are largely similar to those of caffeine anhydrous, meaning it works well as a stimulant, reducing fatigue and boosting alertness. It can eliminate pain from headaches as well. There is one seemingly disadvantageous aspect to caffeine citrate: it requires twice the dosage of caffeine anhydrous to achieve the same effects. So why would anyone bother with the citrate form? The reason that caffeine citrate remains a popular choice is because it is significantly faster acting than its anhydrous counterpart. Your body requires approximately 45 minutes to absorb caffeine, with peak blood concentration occurring one to two hours after ingestion. Caffeine citrate can reach peak concentration within 30 minutes. Another benefit is there are very few caffeine citrate side effects in adults. The most common side effect is disrupted sleep. To avoid this, do not take caffeine citrate in the afternoon or evenings. Caffeine Citrate Dosage When dosing caffeine citrate, use a 2:1 ratio based on your caffeine anhydrous dosage. This means since the typical caffeine anhydrous dosage is 50-100mg, you should use 100-200mg of caffeine citrate. If you have never used caffeine citrate before, start with the smallest suggested dose (100mg) and only increase the dosage after you have determined how your body responds.

CDP Choline
What is CDP Choline Powder? Cytidine Diphosphate Choline (CDP Choline) aids in the protection of cell membranes in the central nervous system. Additionally, it increases cerebral metabolism and studies have indicated it may increase the efficacy of dopamine receptors.Scientists have established that CDP Choline aids in the body's synthesis of acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that is associated with the brain's ability to learn and remember. Acetylcholine facilitates formation of memories. If there is an increased amount of available acetylcholine in the brain, there may be an improvement in memory formation. CDP Choline Powder Benefits It is a common complaint that, as someone grows older, they might notice that it takes more time to remember details, or that they may not be able to remember those details at all. This is a reality faced by everyone as the brain ages. It is frustrating, and there seems to be very little that can be done about it. There has been a lot of recent interest in acetylcholine and its role in the human brain. Cholinergics and their unique effect on brain chemistry may improve memory and cognition . There have been multiple clinical trials that have shown positive results to indicate this. Similarly, many clinical studies have been done, with positive results, in relation to cholines and an increase in cognition in people with age-related loss of memory. Using an Oxiracetam supplement may potentiate, or improve, the positive effects of CDP Choline. CDP Choline Side Effects CDP Choline is extremely well tolerated by the vast majority of people who take this supplement, a fact that is reinforced by the results of several studies encompassing a fairly large sample group. The most common CDP choline side effects reported are mild gastrointestinal issues, including nausea and diarrhea. There is insufficient evidence available to insure that this supplement is safe to take while pregnant or breastfeeding. WebMD reports no potential drug interactions with its use. Similarly, there is little information available on the effects of its long term use (more than 9 weeks). CDP Choline Powder Dosage A CDP Choline dosage of 500-2000mg per day is the suggested dose to promote cognitive functions. A dose of 250 to 600 mg per day is suggested, for instance, for people who may be at risk for a decline in memory based on medical and familial history, such as cardio-cerebrovascular risk factors. Supplemental B complex vitamins and folate supplements may aid in the absorption of this product. CDP Choline Bioavailability, Mixing and Solubility CDP choline powder dissolves quickly in water and has almost no taste. Mix with water or juice and drink. Best Choline Supplement Determining the best choline supplement for you can be tricky given that there are so many options available on the market. Three popular options are CDP Choline, Alpha-GPC, and Choline Bitartrate. Alpha-GPC is often touted as the best choline source, but it has some drawbacks. It is extremely hygroscopic meaning it absorbs water from the air. As a result, it can sometimes solidify. Since it is impractical to store pure Alpha-GPC for long periods, it is often sold at a 50% concentration. CDP Choline, while not as effective as Alpha-GPC, still provides numerous cognitive benefits. It is able to improve memory and provides neuroprotective benefits. Both Alpha-GPC and CDP Choline are excellent choline sources, and many individuals choose to try out both and see which works best for them. Choline bitartrate is the weakest of the three, but it is also the most affordable. It does not provide as many nootropic benefits as the other choline sources, but it still provides liver benefits. Plus, like the other choline sources, it is effective at helping reduce the likelihood of a racetam headache.

Centella Asiatica
Centella Asiatica (Gotu Kola Plant) Centella is a wetlands native plant with culinary and supplementation uses. Gotu kola's supplemental value lies in its triterpenoids, or triterpenoid saponins. The ability of triterpenoid saponins to break down lipids and increase collagen synthesis, make the gotu kola herb a popular ingredient in skin creams. Centella Asiatica Benefits Anecdotal reports compare gotu kola to bacopa monnieri because of its anxiolytic effects, yet there are no human studies on centella's cognitive or anxiolytic benefits. Centella Asiatica Extract Dosage A standardized gotu kola extract ensures a minimum amount of active ingredients. This centella asiatica extract is standardized for 5% triterpenoid saponins. These saponins are comprised of asiatic and madecassic acid, madecassoside and asiaticoside. Take one capsule (600mg) daily. Centella Asiatica Extract Side Effects Though rare when taken as directed some users have experienced upset stomach and drowsiness when supplementing with Gotu Kola.

Centrophenoxine
What is Centrophenoxine Powder? Centrophenoxine is a substance synthesized by DMAE and p-chlorophenooxyacetic acid (PCPA). This is a plant hormone that mimics natural growth factor. Centrophenoxine has been tested for its ability to improve age related confusion, memory, and concentration, and has been found to be successful in improving these brain functions. If you are looking to supercharge your brain, Centrophenoxine might be the nootropic you've been looking for. Used for half a century as a brain energizer, it continues to be a popular choice in the nootropic community. Centrophenoxine Benefits The DMAE element of Centrophenoxine is able to cross into the acetylcholine supply of the brain and also provides powerful antioxidant protection. Many see it as a promising nootropic in the fight against free radical degeneration of brain functions. Centrophenoxine has been shown in scientific studies to decrease the buildup of certain age-induced pigments in the central nervous system. This helps explain its nootropic capacity. Centrophenoxine has also been shown to be highly active in acetylcholine level production and regulation. Studies have confirmed its ability to increase choline and acetylcholine in the brain. The brain is exceptionally vulnerable to free radicals both because it is made up of easily peroxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids and because it generates a large amount of adenosine triphosphate. It also contains a high level of iron which is part of the free radical production process. All of this combined with the fact that the brain has very few antioxidant compounds to combat all of these confounding factors leads to the need to be proactive. The powerful antioxidant capabilities of Centrophenoxine are a step towards promoting brain health. Centrophenoxine Dosage Centrophenoxine dosages typically range from 500 mg to 1 gram daily. Users often take Centrophenoxine powder as a choline source for a racetam, or as a nootropic in its own right. If supporting a racetam, a higher dose might be necessary for full benefit.

Choline
Choline is similar to the B vitamins. It can be made in the liver. It is also found in foods such as liver, muscle meats, fish, nuts, beans, peas, spinach, wheat germ, and eggs. Choline is used for liver disease, including chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. It is also used for depression, memory loss, Alzheimer's disease and dementia, Huntington's chorea, Tourette's disease, a brain disorder called cerebellar ataxia, certain types of seizures, and a mental condition called schizophrenia. Athletes use it for bodybuilding and delaying fatigue in endurance sports. Choline is taken by pregnant women to prevent neural tube defects in their babies and it is used as a supplement in infant formulas. Other uses include preventing cancer, lowering cholesterol, and controlling asthma.

How does it work?

Choline is similar to a B vitamin. It is used in many chemical reactions in the body. Choline seems to be an important in the nervous system. In asthma, choline might help decrease swelling and inflammation.
  • Liver disease caused by exclusive feeding by vein (parenteral nutrition). Giving choline intravenously (by IV) treats liver disease in people receiving parenteral nutrition who are choline deficient.

Possibly Effective for:

  • Asthma. Taking choline seems to lessen symptoms and the number of days that asthma is a problem for some people. It also seems to reduce the need to use bronchodilators. There is some evidence that higher doses of choline (3 grams daily) might be more effective than lower doses (1.5 grams daily).
  • Neural tube defects. Some research indicates that women who consume a lot of choline in their diet around the time of conception have a lower risk of having babies with a neural tube defect, compared to women with lower intake.

Possibly Ineffective for:

  • Alzheimer's disease. Taking choline by mouth, alone or together with lecithin, does not reduce symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Athletic performance. Taking choline by mouth does not seem to improve athletic performance or lessen fatigue during exercise.
  • A brain condition called cerebellar ataxia. Early research suggests that taking choline by mouth daily might improve motor function in people with a brain condition called cerebellar ataxia. However, other research shows that taking choline does not improve cerebellar ataxia in most people.

Likely Ineffective for:

  • Memory loss due to age. Taking choline by mouth does not improve memory in older people with memory loss.
  • Schizophrenia. Taking choline by mouth does not reduce symptoms of schizophrenia.

Insufficient Evidence for:

  • Allergies (hayfever). Early research suggest that taking a particular type of choline daily for 8 weeks is not as effective as a nasal spray for reducing allergy symptoms.
  • Bipolar disorder. Early research suggests that taking choline might reduce some mood symptoms in people with bipolar disorder who are taking lithium.
  • Bronchitis. Early research suggests that inhaling choline might improve symptoms of bronchitis caused by dust.
  • Mental performance. Early research suggests that taking a single dose of choline does not improve reaction time, reasoning, memory, or other mental functions. Other research suggests choline can improve visual memory, but not other aspects of mental function, when given along with intravenous feeding (parenteral nutrition).
  • Seizures. There are reports that taking high doses of choline might be helpful for some people with a type of seizure called complex partial seizures.
  • Hepatitis and other liver disorders.
  • Depression.
  • High cholesterol.
  • Huntington's chorea.
  • Tourette's syndrome.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate choline for these uses.
 
Choline is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth or given intravenously (by IV) in appropriate amounts. Taking high doses of choline by mouth is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for adults. Doses over the Daily Upper Intake Levels (see dosage section below) are more likely to cause side effects such as sweating, a fishy body odor, gastrointestinal distress, diarrhea, and vomiting. There is some concern that increasing dietary choline intake might increase the risk of cancer of the colon and rectum. One study found that women eating a diet that contains a lot of choline have an increased the risk of colon cancer. However, more research is still needed to determine the effects of diet on colon cancer.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Children: Choline is LIKELY SAFE for most children when taken by mouth in appropriate amounts. Taking high doses of choline by mouth is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for children due to the increased risk of side effects. Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Choline is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth and used appropriately. Doses up to 3 grams daily for pregnant and breast-feeding women up to 18 years of age, and 3.5 grams daily for women 19 years and older are not likely to cause unwanted side effects. There isn’t enough information available about the safety of choline used in higher doses in pregnant or lactating women. It’s best to stick to recommended doses.
 
The following doses have been studied in scientific research: BY MOUTH:
  • For asthma: 500-1000 mg three times daily.
An average diet supplies 200-600 mg of choline daily. Adequate Intake (AI), as established by the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Institute of Medicine, for adults is 550 mg per day for men and breast feeding women; women, 425 mg per day; pregnant women, 450 mg per day. For children 1-3 years the AI is 200 mg per day; 4-8 years, 250 mg per day; 9-13 years, 375 mg per day; for infants less than 6 months, 125 mg per day; infants 7-12 months, 150 mg per day. Daily Upper Intake Levels (UL, the highest level of intake that is not likely to cause harm) for choline are: 1 gram daily for children 1-8 years, 2 grams for children 9-13 years, 3 grams for children 14-18 years, and 3.5 grams for adults over 18 years of age.
 
       

Coleus Forskohlii Root Extract
This supplement comes from the root of the Coleus Forskohlii, an ancient Ayurvedic plant originally cultivated in the lower elevations of India. Since its discovery, this plant has been domesticated and grows in many different countries. It is a member of the mint and lavender families and has numerous uses. These include improving heart and lung health as well as improving sleep to name just a few. The active ingredient in this supplement, Forskolin, has numerous benefits. Coleus Forskohlii Root Extract 10% Benefits Weight loss is a popular Coleus Forskohlii benefit. Coleus Forskohlii stimulates the production of something known as cyclic AMP (cAMP), which helps our cells communicate with each other. As the level of this molecule increases, it signals the body to increase the amount of the enzyme Hormone-Sensitive Lipase (HSL) and potentially helps to stimulate the release of thyroid hormones. Both of these substances help the body to burn fat and calories, resulting in weight loss. It can also help to reduce fatigue. Coleus Forskohlii is also responsible for activating numerous hormonal processes and reactions, including dilating blood vessel, which may result in lowered blood pressure, improved overall cardiovascular health, and the forcefulness at which the heart pumps blood. Coleus Forskohlii also helps to improve eye health by reducing intraocular pressure within the eye. This is similar to its ability to relax and dilate blood vessels. This type of pressure is often associated with vision maladies, so supplementation may help to reduce these problems. Coleus Forskohlii Root Extract Side Effects There have been no reported negative side effects. Coleus Forskohlii Root Extract 10% Dosage Dosage is scaled for a 10% concentration. For best results, individuals should take 250mg two times per day.

Coluracetam
What is Coluracetam? Coluracetam is one of the newer racetam nootropics to hit the market. The idea behind this powerful compound is that it acts as a Choline uptake enhancer. In other words, the purpose of this nootropic is to enhance the effects of Choline on the brain and body. This includes the increased production of Acetylcholine, without which it would be impossible move our muscles or even be able to remember simple facts. Not only does coluracetam increase the production of Acetylcholine, but it also speeds up its flow in brain synapses. This product was first registered in 2005 and phase 2A trials were completed back in 2010 . Coluracetam Benefits Rat studies have shown that Coluracetam is helpful in reducing the effects of learning deficits. Not only did it reduce these effects, but it also did not have any of the normally expected side effects. This product is also considered to have great potential as a casual mood enhancer and a powerful memory booster. There is even evidence to suggest that the positive effects on the brain are semi-permanent . Users also report a rather wide range of Coluracetam benefits. This includes enhanced concentration and speed of cognition. Coluracetam also helps with both short and medium term memory. There are also a number of reports of being able to study and focus more easily while taking this nootropic. This product also seems to have a bit of a stimulant effect. It should help to shake off any of the morning dreariness if taken upon waking and it may produce a nice, comfortable energy boost that can last well into the day. A number of users have reported that this is able to help them improve their motivation and ability to get things done. Another interesting effect is the apparent enhancement of sounds and colors. This can be compared to turning up the brightness on a TV or computer screen, with sounds become fuller and richer. Coluracetam Dosage Coluracetam is a rather fast acting nootropic that can be detected in neural tissues within 30 minutes of ingestion . Suggested dosage is 48-480mcg/kg. This means 3.2-32.7mg for a 200lb person

Creatine HCL
Creatine is a naturally occurring chemical found within the body, normally in the muscles. It is also found in certain foods and may be obtained through supplementation. It is widely used among athletes in a wide range of sports for the primary purpose of improving exercise performance and increasing muscle mass. Creatine HCL is one of the newest iterations of creatine to hit the market; however, it is also significantly more potent. This is the primary difference between Creatine HCL and other types of creatine like monohydrate. It does not require a loading phase and calls for a significantly smaller dosage while still delivering the same benefits. Creatine HCL Benefits Creatine hydrochloride's main benefit is helping to build muscle faster and easier. This is thought to be due to an increase in the production and supply of ATP to working muscle cells. This also provides more energy to the muscles, helping to avoid lactic acid build-up and allowing for longer and more intense workouts. When considering the various types of Creatine, HCL is water soluble. That means that it is more easily absorbed into the bloodstream, which reduces typical side effects seen in other types of Creatine (bloating, digestive issues, and water retention). Additionally, it may be used continuously without any detrimental effects, and there is no required loading period in order to build up its effectiveness. Creatine HCL is also much more highly concentrated than other forms. This makes it so that you do not need to take very much in order to receive beneficial effects. Creatine HCL Dosage Unlike monohydrate, Creatine hydrochloride does not require a loading phase. Best results are obtained using a 750mg Creatine HCL dosage per day. This is equivalent to a scant 1/2 tsp scoop of the bulk powder. This dosage can even be split into 2 or 3 different administrations. This should be mixed with juice in order to improve its rate of absorption. Typical uses are as both a pre- and post-workout drink. This helps to supply needed energy, makes the routine more effective, and then begins to help with the repair and recovery of muscle cells and tissues. Creatine HCL (Hydrochloride) Side Effects There have been no significant side effects reported.

Curcumin
What is Curcumin Powder? Curcumin the main active ingredient in Turmeric and can also be found in ginger in minute quantities. Curcumin is primarily used as a cholinergic and to improve joint health. It synergizes particularly well with piperine, greatly increasing its bioavailability. It also pairs well with fish oil to form an effective antioxidant team. Curcumin 95% Benefits Curcumin is a neuroprotectant and nootropic. It is incredibly effective at defending against glutamate excitotoxicity, which causes neuronal cell death. It is also able to increase Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a secreted protein that is vital to the survival and proliferation of neurons within the brain . Curcumin supplementation is also able to reduce the negative influence stress exerts on cognition as well as prevent neuronal cell death caused by corticosterone, a hormone responsible for how your body responds to stress . There is also some evidence that curcumin supplements can reduce age related memory loss by inhibiting the buildup of beta amyloid, a peptide commonly found in age related degenerative diseases of the brain . Curcumin can also provide some analgesic (pain relief) benefits as well, particularly following an injury or in persons with poor joint health . Additional benefits for joints include a reduction of inflammation and stiffness with an increase in mobility . In regards to its efficacy as an antioxidant, curcumin is able to stimulate autophagy, a process linked with longevity that is able to rid the body of damaged cells . When combined with DHA, a major component of fish oil, curcumin is able to greatly promote healthy breast cells . Curcumin Dosage A wide dosage range exists for curcumin, spanning from 80 to 500mg; however, the most common curcumin dosage is 500mg (2 level 1/8 tsp scoops). As curcumin is poorly absorbed on its own, it should be paired with piperine or phosphatidylcholine to improve bioavailability. Curcumin is well tolerated by most individuals.


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